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Epictetus (55-135)

Epictetus (Greek: Ἐπίκτητος) was a Greek Stoic philosopher. He was born a slave at Hierapolis, Phrygia (present day Pamukkale, Turkey), and lived in Rome until his exile to Nicopolis in northwestern Greece, where he lived most of his life and died. His teachings were noted down and published by his pupil Arrian in his Discourses. Philosophy, he taught, is a way of life and not just a theoretical discipline. To Epictetus, all external events are determined by fate, and are thus beyond our control, but we can accept whatever happens calmly and dispassionately. Individuals, however, are responsible for their own actions, which they can examine and control through rigorous self-discipline. Suffering arises from trying to control what is uncontrollable, or from neglecting what is within our power. As part of the universal city that is the universe, human beings have a duty to care for all fellow humans. The person who followed these precepts would achieve happiness.

"There is only one way to happiness, and that is to cease worrying about things which are beyond the power of our will."
"It is impossible for a man to learn what he thinks he already knows."
"We are disturbed not by events, but by the views which we take of them."
"First say to yourself what you would be; and then do what you have to do."
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