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worddefinition
radome A radome (a portmanteau of radar and dome) is a structural, weatherproof enclosure that protects a microwave (e.g. radar) antenna. The radome is constructed of material that minimally attenuates the electromagnetic signal transmitted or received by the antenna. In other words, the radome is transparent to radar or radio waves. Radomes protect the antenna surfaces from weather or conceal antenna electronic equipment from public view. They also protect nearby personnel from being accidentally struck by quickly-rotating antennas.
rakia Rakia (also Rakija) is fruit brandy that is produced by distillation of fermented fruit; it is a popular beverage throughout the Balkans, Italy, and France. Its alcohol content is normally 40% ABV, but home-produced rakia can be stronger (typically 50% to 60%).
ramada An open-air shade built of upright posts that are covered with a flat roof. The Pimas and Papagos also made use of the ramada as a focal point of family activity.
rampion A Eurasian plant of the bellflower family, some kinds of which have a root that can be eaten in salads, in particular the Mediterranean.
raptus 1. Seizure: a sudden occurrence (or recurrence) of a disease. 2. Ecstasy: a state of being carried away by overwhelming emotion. 3. Raptus is the Latin for "seized," from rapere "to seize." In Roman law the term covered many crimes of property, and women were considered property.
rasgueado A guitar finger strumming technique commonly associated with flamenco guitar music.
rastaquouère A social upstart, especially from a Mediterranean or Latin American country; a smooth untrustworthy foreigner.
ravelin A fortification outside a castle used to split an attacking force; composed of two faces, forming a salient angle whose gorge resembles a half-moon.
rayah A rayah, raya, raja, or reaya (the usual modern scholarly spelling) (also spelled raiah, re'aya; Ottoman Turkish رعايا ; Modern Turkish râya or reaya) was a member of the tax-paying lower class of Ottoman society, in contrast to the askeri.
razzia 1. Ghazi or ghazah (plural ghazawāt; Arabic: غزو‎, giving rise to Italian razzia) was originally an Arabic term referring to the battles in which the Islamic prophet Muhammad personally participated. It has since evolved into a term for battle associated with the expansion of Muslim territory. 2. A hostile raid for purposes of conquest, plunder, and capture of slaves, esp. one carried out by Moors in North Africa.
readograph (Also, read-o-graph.) A sign with movable letters for displaying topical messages, such as outside a movie theater or church.
rebarbative (of a person) irritating, repellent
rebozo A long woven scarf, often of fine material, worn over the head and shoulders by Spanish and Mexican women.
recension The practice of editing or revising a text based on critical analysis. When referring to manuscripts, this may be a revision by another author.
redingote The redingote is a type of coat that has had several forms over time. The name is derived from a French alteration of the English "riding coat."
redoune Nom provençal d'un très gros squale, qui se nourrit principalement de scombres, de maquereaux, d'espadons et de thons.
reeve The president of a village or town council.
refectory A refectory (also frater, frater house, fratery) is a dining room, especially in monasteries, boarding schools and academic institutions. One of the places it is most often used today is in graduate seminaries.
refugia In biology a refugium (plural: refugia) is a location of an isolated or relict population of a once widespread species.
regalia Regalia is Latin plurale tantum for the privileges and the insignia characteristic of a Sovereign.
regent From the Latin regens "that who reigns," is a person selected to act as head of state (ruling or not) because the ruler is a minor, not present, or debilitated.
reichhaltig 1. vieles enthaltend (Auswahl, Bibliotek, Mahlzeit) 2. vieles darbietend (Programm)
reification Reification (also known as concretism, or the fallacy of misplaced concreteness) is a fallacy of ambiguity, when an abstraction (abstract belief or hypothetical construct) is treated as if it were a concrete, real event, or physical entity. In other words, it is the error of treating as a concrete thing something which is not concrete, but merely an idea. Another common manifestation is the confusion of a model with reality. Mathematical or simulation models may help understand a system or situation but real life may differ from the model (e.g. 'the map is not the territory'). Reification is generally accepted in literature and other forms of discourse where reified abstractions are understood to be intended metaphorically, but the use of reification in logical arguments is usually regarded as a fallacy.
Reigen Der Reigen (auch Rei(h)en, von altfrz. raïe „Tanz“) oder Kreistanz ist eine der ältesten Tanzformen Europas. In den Dörfern Europas entstand der Reigen um 1100 n. Chr. als nicht-kultischer Tanz. Er wurde zum mittelalterlichen weltlichen Volkstanz und drang nach und nach auch in höfische Bereiche ein. In der Antike wurde er bereits in Griechenland - oft mit kultischem Hintergrund - getanzt.
relâchement 1. État d'une chose qui devient moins tendue qu'elle n'était, qui a perdu de son ressort. Le relâchement des cordes d'un violon. 2. (Figuré) Diminution de l'effort, de la vigueur, de la régularité, de la sévérité. Le relâchement de la discipline. Il s'était introduit un grand relâchement dans les moeurs. Après avoir vécu plusieurs années dans l'austérité, il tomba dans un grand relâchement. 3. (En bonne part) Délassement, d'un certain état de repos, d'une utile cessation de travail ou d'exercice. Après une grande contention d'esprit, on a besoin de quelque relâchement.
reliquary A container where religious relics are stored or displayed (especially relics of saints).
remit 1. Refer (a matter or legal case) to another committee or authority or court for decision. 2. The topic that a person, committee, or piece of research is expected to deal with or has authority to deal with.
reniform (of a leaf or bean shape) resembling the shape of kidney
renitent Resistant to physical pressure; unyielding; resistant to compulsion; recalcitrant.
renminbi The Chinese unit of currency.
rep Rep, Repp, or Reps is a cloth made of silk, wool, or cotton. The name is said to have been adapted from the French reps, a word of unknown origin; it has also been suggested that it is a corruption of rib. It is woven in fine cords or ribs across the width of the piece.
repletion The state of being satisfactorily full and unable to take on more.
replicase RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRP), or RNA replicase, is an enzyme that catalyzes the replication of RNA from an RNA template.
rescript 1. Strictly, the decision of the Roman emperor on a case referred to him by a governor or judge; more loosely, any formal written command by a person in authority. 2. A document that is issued not on the initiative of the author, but in response (it literally means "written back") to a specific demand made by its addressee. It does not apply to more general legislation etcetera.
resipiscence 1. Wisdom from experience. 2. Repentance. 3. Recognition of a past mistake and the desire to improve in the future.
retrodict To utilize present information or ideas to infer or explain (a past event or state of affairs).
revanchism Revanchism (from French revanche, "revenge") is a term used since the 1870s to describe a political manifestation of the will to reverse territorial losses incurred by a country, often following a war.
revenance A return after a long absence.
revenant A person who has returned, especially supposedly from the dead.
revetment Revetments, or revêtements (following the original French spelling), are structures placed on banks or cliffs in such a way as to absorb the energy of incoming water or explosives.
rhabdomyolysis Rhabdomyolysis is a condition in which damaged skeletal muscle tissue (Greek: ῥαβδω rhabdo- striped μυς myo- muscle) breaks down (Greek: λύσις –lysis) rapidly. Breakdown products of damaged muscle cells are released into the bloodstream; some of these, such as the protein myoglobin, are harmful to the kidneys and may lead to kidney failure. The severity of the symptoms, which may include muscle pains, vomiting and confusion, depends on the extent of muscle damage and whether kidney failure develops. The muscle damage may be caused by physical factors (e.g. crush injury, strenuous exercise), medications, drug abuse, and infections. Some people have a hereditary muscle condition that increases the risk of rhabdomyolysis. The diagnosis is usually made with blood tests and urinalysis. The mainstay of treatment is generous quantities of intravenous fluids, but may include dialysis or hemofiltration in more severe cases.
Rhadanite The Radhanites (also Radanites, Arabic الرذنية ar-Raðaniyya; Hebrew sing. רדהני Radhani, pl. רדהנים Radhanim) were medieval Jewish merchants.
rheology The study of the flow of matter, primarily in a liquid state, but also as 'soft solids' or solids under conditions in which they respond with plastic flow rather than deforming elastically in response to an applied force.
ribozyme An RNA molecule with catalytic properties, typically in association with a cofactor such as a neucleotide or metal ion.
rictus 1. The expanse of an open mouth, a bird's beak, or similar structure. 2. A gaping grimace.
Ringelmann effect The Ringelmann effect is the tendency for individual members of a group to become increasingly less productive as the size of their group increases. This effect, discovered by French agricultural engineer, Maximilien Ringelmann (1861-1931), illustrates the inverse relationship that exists between the size of a group and the magnitude of group members' individual contribution to the completion of a task. While studying the relationship between process loss (i.e., reductions in performance effectiveness or efficiency) and group productivity, Ringelmann (1913) found that having group members work together on a task (e.g., pulling a rope) actually results in significantly less effort than when individual members are acting alone. Furthermore, Ringelmann (1913) discovered that as more and more people are added to a group, the group often becomes increasingly inefficient, ultimately violating the notion that group effort and team participation reliably leads to increased effort on behalf of the members.
rissole A ball of meat covered in pastry, which has been fried.
ritornello 1. A short recurrent instrumental passage in a vocal composition. 2. An instrumental interlude in early opera. 3. A tutti passage in a concerto or rondo refrain.
rodomontade Vain boasting; a rant; pretentious behaviour.
rogation A solemn supplication ceremony prescribed by the church.
roister Enjoy oneself or celebrate in a noisy or boisterous way.
roman a clef A novel in which actual persons and events are disguised as fictional characters.
roorback (U.S.) A false or distorted report or account, used to obtain political advantage.
rorqual The rorquals are those baleen whales that are characterized by the presence of conspicuous grooves, or pleats, on their throats. (The word "rorqual" is derived from the Old Norse word for "grooved whale.") Rorquals include the minke, sei, Bryde's, blue, fin, and humpback whales.
rota A type of vocal round of the 13th and 14th centuries, probably only in England. (Many other definitions from various fields.)
roundel 1. Anything having a round form; a round figure; a circle. 2. (music) A roundelay or rondelay.
routinier Qui concerne la routine; Celui, celle qui agit par routine, qui se conforme à la routine.
ruck 1. A rapidly moving throng or mob; a pack of people actively engaged in something. 2. The situation formed when a runner is brought to ground and one or more members of each side are engaged above the ball, trying to win possession of it; a loose scrum; contesting a bounce or ball up.
ruction Commotion: the act of making a noisy disturbance.
ruderal A plant, usually alien, occurring in waste areas, along roadsides, and in other places disturbed by humans; pertaining to such a plant.
ruggedize To produce a more rugged version of something, so that it will withstand rough treatment.
rugose Having wrinkles, creases or ridges.
runcible A runcible spoon is a utensil that appears in nonsense poetry, which also uses the adjective "runcible" to describe objects other than spoons.
runnel Eroded shallow channels created when rills pass over fine soil.
Ruritania An imaginary kingdom in central Europe; often used as a scene for intrigue and romance.
rushlight A rushlight is a type of candle formed using the dried pith of the rush plant as its wick. The green epidermis or rind is peeled off to reveal the inner pith, aside from a single strip left to provide support. It is then steeped in any household fat or grease that is available although beeswax or good tallow, especially mutton fat, improves the quality of the light.
rusticate 1. To suspend or expel from a college or university. 2. To construct in a manner so as to produce jagged or heavily textured surfaces. 3. To compel to live in or to send to the countryside; to cause to become rustic. 4. To go to reside in the country.
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